(I don´t know who has written this homepage, and cannot guarantée its scientific quality,  but it contains a lot of detailed information about M. Gimbutas´Kurgan theories and other stuff as well.)


M A R I A   G I M B U T A S 

EDITED BY JOAN MARLER Harper, San Francisco, 1994, ISBN 978-0062508041
Chapter 10


The End of Old Europe: The Intrusion of Steppe Pastoralists from N.Pontic and the Transformation of Europe


The Indo-European culture is not a rival with the Türkic culture, their origins and histories are much interspersed, the protestations appearing in the posting are aimed solely at distortions and misrepresentations endemic to the Eurocentric offshoot of the science, and a full credit must be given to Eurocentrism for the studies that unwittingly advanced Turkology.


Without Eurocentrism, Turkology as we know it would not have even existed. The book of Prof. M.Gimbutas is her late work, after she consolidated and fine-tuned her theory in defense from numerous critics. Her theory was rooted on technology, the development of carbon isotope dating allowed systematization of accumulated observations and conjectures into a coherent storyline. Fortuitously, she stood on shoulders of F.Soddy and F.W. Aston, without whom her theory could not have been created. While whole schools of archeology discounted radiocarbon dating as too imprecise and unreliable, the new tool allowed M.Gimbutas to leapfrog into the 20th c. Only with the 21st c. technology of haplotype allele dating it became clear that archeologists confused two separate developments, a later west-to-east movement of non-Kurgan people with the earlier east-to west movement of the Kurgan people.


The history of these movements, separated in time by a millennia, is yet unwritten, but it is already clear that much of M.Gimbutas´ interpretations will have to be disbanded, while the facts on the ground will remain solidly intact. The adjusted storyline will still rest on the shoulders of  M.Gimbutas, on the solid foundation she created using radiocarbon dating. A fallout of the picture drawn by the alleles is that R1a  either pra-pra-Indo-Europeans or rather pra-pra-Türks reached C.Europe 10 mill. BP, the R1b1 pra-pra-Türks reached Urals 6.8 mill. BP, and the two strongly hybridized and metamorphised pra-kin groups met again in the C.Europe as a first wave of Kurganians 4.5 mill. BP.


At about 3500 BC, Europe was invaded by the Kurgan wave 2, and at about 3000 BC Kurgan wave 3 flooded C.Europe. These waves, archeologically associated with the cultures dubbed Battle Ax and Corded Ware, roughly coincided in time with the Celtic expansion to the Central Europe, and wrecked there a havoc known as the Central European “killing fields”. These invader flows were predominantly marked by R1b haplogroup, the survivals that included possible pra-Indo-European male haplogroup I fled to the E. Europe and Scandinavia.



This allele-driven scenario demands that the core traits of the 2500 BC-old pra-Indo-Europeans have already coagulated into a militant sexist patriarchy that Prof. M.Gimbutas improperly attributed to the matriarchal Kurgan people, creating a host of contradictions with the archeological and historical sources.


The dynamics of the haplogroup and linguistic striation in the Eastern European Plain, in the Near East, and in Europe has led to erroneous linguistic and archaeological concepts such as the “Indo-European Kurgan Culture”, with its transposed languages (postulated “Indo-European”, when it was a Türkic language), the wrong direction of movement (the “Proto-Indo-Europeans” were moving eastward, not westward; the Türks were moving westward, the westward Türkic movement was seen by the creators and supporters of the “Kurgan Culture” as the “Indo-European movement”, exactly the opposite of reality), incorrect periods: in the 3rd millennium BC the Proto-Indo-European language advanced eastward across the Eastern European Plain, while the ancient Pit Grave or “Kurgan” culture is dated by the period of the 4th-3rd mill. BC, and was moving westward. Misreading the historical dynamics induced fabrication of a religious conflict in C.Europe when there was none, and unwarranted coinage of fictional militancy and patriarchy for the Kurgan people.


The dynamics of the Indo-European peoples' creation was defined by a combination of the first migrants from Inner Asia to Europe marked by haplogroup R1a1, with all the additions they gained in the next 5,000 years, with the Eastern European Kurgan people of the haplogroup R1b1 who reached Iberia by southern circum-Mediterranean way, with all the additions they obtained in 1,200 years of migration, which formed the joint Beaker/TRB culture, which in turn absorbed uncounted additions when their migration pendulum reversed on their way to Central Europe, and one well-known part of which moved east, crossed the sands of the Central Asia, and reached India. The ignorance of the circum-Mediterranean component, with its powerful role in creating the Beaker/TRB culture, led the whole Kurgan model of Indo-Europeanization into a scientific chaos.


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